Thursday, October 31, 2019
Stakeholders - Assignment Example The success of the company has been made possible through the active participation of the stakeholders. The academic paper analyzes ten significant stakeholders of the company. The significance of the stakeholders is as explained below. 2. The guests are the main business stakeholders. The company invests a lot of resources for product marketing, so as to attract the attention of the global customer base. High customer numbers translates to high sales revenue. 3. The owner is another significant stakeholder. The owner is the chairman of the board of directors. He provides overall direction to the company, and formulates strategies that will ensure achievement of mission and vision. 6. The resort adheres to conditions set by the regulating officials. The federal and state agencies in the hotel and tourism sector are responsible for setting regulations, which all industry players must adhere to. 7. The hotel industry trade unions are stakeholder. All employees have the rights of joining a trade union of their choice. The trade unions enhance their welfare by jointly improving working conditions with the management. 8. The state department is responsible for providing the infrastructure and regulation necessary for the hotel, tourism and hospitality industry. Security infrastructure is provided by the department, in addition to transport and communication infrastructure. The stakeholder analysis illustrates that the employees are the most important stakeholders for the business. This is illustrated through the relatively high rating of 17%. The employees are significant because they are responsible for providing services to the customers effectively and efficiently. The employees are also responsible for customer retention, through providing services that meets and exceeds the expectations of the customers. Other important stakeholders at 17% are guests and the owner. The casino and the
Tuesday, October 29, 2019
Irish Weddings Essay Ireland is one country, which is part of the larger United Kingdom (UK). It is a blessed country with numerous greens, which range from the rolling green hills of sheep pasture to the gorgeous gardens as well as ancient castles. Romance is so much embraced by the Irish culture with a lot of passion. The Irish culture allows one to lie in a meadow with his/her love, track down four leaf clovers, or to dance night long to the favorite Irish band. The culture is rich since the Irish is a blend of the old Celtic mythologies and the Christianity brought in by St. Patrick (Haggerty Bridget http://www. irishcultureandcustoms. com/). Therefore in a relationship both backgrounds have a great influence and tradition asks the lovers to be rational and to respect each other as well as their families. The culture demands that Lovers run bare feet through rugged terrain while tumbling in the grass in show of IrishÃ¢â¬â¢s love of nature. Irish Church Weddings St. Patrick was an Irish and his most cherished color was blue and until recently the national flag of the Ireland was blue in honor of him. In addition to the love of green, anyone who wishes to do a church wedding must have blue as a theme (Goodwin Audrey, p128). Considering the fact that the Irish are very patient and religious, the names of the bride and bridegroom are first read in church for three consecutive Sundays prior to the wedding day so as to allow the couple to reconsider their decisions as well as also gives others a chance to file an objection for the same. A couple registers in church for marriage three months prior to their wedding day. Irish Claddagh Ring The claddagh ring is very popular among the Irish and was given to the woman by the man as a show of love and faith. (Fielding, p268). This was especially when a man was going away for sometime, either to war or in pursuit for greener pastures to improve their living standards. The ring was worn by the woman to show that she is somebodyÃ¢â¬â¢s and could be made more personal by using the birthstone of the person to show that it is specifically meant for her. Irish Hand Fasting Before St. Patrick brought Christianity to Ireland, the inhabitants of Ireland believed in paganism and Celtic traditions that was attached with hand fasting. Hand fasting is a form of Ã¢â¬Å"trial marriageÃ¢â¬ which lasted for a year after which the couple are allowed to decide whether they are compatible to continue or to part ways. Sir Walter Scott as a betrothal day first introduced this day (Fielding, William J. p263). There was no attachments or commitments in hand fasting. Even today hand fasting has been incorporated in marriage ceremonies where the bride and the bridegroom have their hands bound together with ribbons. Irish Wedding Days Of The Week Ladies and gentlemen as you have realized the Irish are very religious and always put God before everything. The days of the week are lanked whereby Saturday is seen as no day. According to their traditions, Weddings cannot be done on Christmas day since it is Jesus birthday nor on Sunday as it is the lords worship day. They argue that the events that occur in wedding ceremonies, which include dancing and partying, are not appropriate during these special days. Some other days of the week like Friday and Saturday are also seen as inappropriate for weddings since the ceremonies can go for 2-3 and can stretch to Sunday. Irish Wedding Months For every situation the Irish have their sayings and concerning wedding months the Irish have the following myths: (Irish church wedding, http://www. romanceclass. com). They believe that the marriage that occurs in the start of the year is loving, kind and true. If one marries during the month of February his/her fate is on the balance but march weddings ends up with both joy and sorrow while those in April bring joy for both the bride and bridegroom. They further believe that to marry in May is a waste of time, To marry in June means that you will be away from each other a lot of time whereas July weddings are linked to struggling so much to make a living. Those marriages in the month of August are associated with many changes in the couple. September weddings on the other hand are linked with both wealth and comfort, whereby love and dynamic riches are for October weddings. In addition, only joy will come in November wedding but deficiency of other things and December is the best month for marriage since they belief that true love will manifest. Irish Love Charms Like the saying goes Ã¢â¬Å"the way to a manÃ¢â¬â¢s heart is true the stomachÃ¢â¬ a woman says the Irish traditional charm as she prepares food for her man. The charm is aimed at bringing the man and the woman closer to each other and makes their love grow each day. The woman longs for everlasting affection from her husband and wishes that her man could give her total attention. Irish traditional songs and lyrics The Irish are known to love songs and dance and this is more pronounced during courtship and marriage ceremonies (Mumphy et al, p126). Locals play flute and drum, fiddle as well as harp while singing helping music, which is full of fun in praise of the bride and bridegrooms. They have a proverb that says Ã¢â¬Å"the most beautiful music of all is the music of what happensÃ¢â¬ and hence all the music and dance is dedicated to the event of that day. Works cited. Fielding, William J. Strange Customs of Courtship and Marriage. The New Home Library, New York. 2005. P. 263. Goodwin Audrey, Irish-wedding traditions El Cajon, Ca. United States. March 2001 p128. Campbell Georgina, The Best Irish Breads and Baking. Georgina CampbellÃ¢â¬â¢s Ireland. 2007. p65 Mumphy, Colin and Donal OÃ¢â¬â¢Dea (2006), The FeckinÃ¢â¬â¢Book of Everything Irish. NewYork, Barnes and Noble. (2006) p126. irish church wedding accessed online 0n 1st October 2007 http://www. romanceclass. com/weddings/ireland/churcweddingasp. Haggerty Bridget, Irish culture and customs; the humor is on me now. Music for an Irish Wedding reception. jan, 2007. accessed online on 1st October 2007 http://www. irishcultureandcustoms. com/wedding/musicreception. html.
Sunday, October 27, 2019
External Influences on Child Development Divina Hale 1 Referring to lecture and the course reader describe both how the following factors are interrelated and how they can influence concepts of childhood: religion or culture education economy/socioeconomics healthcare *Be sure to discuss these factors as they relate to each other, not independently A+B) Culture heavily influences education during childhood. Different cultures have values that they want to instill in future generations. I think this is seen through subjects that are taught in childhood education. For example, in class we discussed how Americans advocate for basic education, but when it comes to higher education thereÃ¢â¬â¢s a theme of only going far enough to have the skills to gain a financially secure future. (E. Miller, personal communication, March 13, 2014) In American culture itÃ¢â¬â¢s expected that youÃ¢â¬â¢ll have a good job and be able to support yourself and a potential family. Originally, this notion was geared more towards men, which is common in many cultures. Men are historically thought of as being the provider for the family. This sort of cultural gender bias has shaped the education of children in many countries. For example, Lee(2010) stated in the article Parental Educational Investments in Japan, that Japanese parents prefer to educate their sons more because they are ultimately the ones who will be the successors of their families while daughters are married out into other families. (p. 1582) ItÃ¢â¬â¢s not to say that daughters donÃ¢â¬â¢t receive any education, but when resources for education are scarce, sons will be the ones to receive education instead of daughters because it gives greater benefits to the parents in the long run. Often this is because the family is short on money or they find that giving their daughter higher education is a waste, so they choose to educate their sons, who will inevitably take care of them when they get old, instead of educating their daughters who will use those skills to provide for a different family. (E. Miller, personal communication, March 13, 2014) C+D) The state of a countryÃ¢â¬â¢s economy plays a huge role on the availability of healthcare for its population. In North America, for example, it is relatively easy to get some kind of care for even if people donÃ¢â¬â¢t have money or healthcare. This is because the economies there are able to support programs that advocate for nationwide medical care. Then there are those economies that arenÃ¢â¬â¢t healthy enough to support such programs. For children this can lead to early death or health problems that could have easily been prevented with proper care. The Ã¢â¬Å"Factors in health initiative Success: Learning from NepalÃ¢â¬â¢s newborn survival initiativeÃ¢â¬ article by Smith and Neupane(2011), says that many of the neonatal deaths that occur in Nepal could easily be prevented if the mothers had access to care. (p. 570) For people in these countries, even the most simple of illnesses can be deadly. Something so simple like diarrhea can be deadly when in places like the United States, medication to stop it can be found in almost any store. This shows how not having enough resources in an economy can affect the population and prevent it from flourishing. During one of the lectures we learned that only twenty percent of healthcare posts offer twenty-four hour service. (E. Miller, personal communication, February 18, 2014) Those that have the money for the care they need are limited to when they can receive treatment making it much more dangerous to develop an ailment outside of the hours of operation. Also some of these clinics may take many days to reach if people do not have proper transportation allowing their health problems to become that much more severe and in a childÃ¢â¬â¢s case they may not make it to the clinic. These clinics also do not offer care aimed solely for children. The Nepalese government has only established a healthcare system for children in Katmandu. Education From a global perspective, refer to lecture and at least two of the three articles in the reader (Hannum et al., 2009; Lee, 2010; and Lohani et al, 2010) to describe some of the specific challenges associated with educational equality or lack thereof. Referring to lecture and the reader, discuss the unique factors of Nepal in terms of how they influence Nepalese childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s current access to education. A) Two of the most prominent factors that prevent equality of education are gender and financial status. In the United States gender is usually not a factor in education equality, but financial status is. Recently in class we discussed the importance of education in our families and in the United States. We discussed how families with greater wealth are able to send their children to private schools or public schools in better neighborhoods because they have the money to do so. (E. Miller, personal communication, March 13, 2014) Those who are not able to afford such schools are likely to send their children to the nearest school to them regardless of quality. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s also common for the parents in that family to have received a poor education and so they may not value it as much as they should. This can lead to children not valuing education either and they could lack the drive to do their best in school or decide to drop out. In places such as Japan and China, gender and financi al status play a role in education inequality. The article Parental Educational Investments in Japan says that when resources are low, parents are forced to choose which of their children will receive higher education. The level of education a child receives in Japan is largely dependent on their parents because of little public assistance. Women are also limited by little opportunities to advance and cultural incentives to stay home and care for the family. (Lee, 2010, p. 1582) These problems stifle a womanÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to get a better education. According to Hannum, Kong, and ZhangÃ¢â¬â¢s(2009) article Ã¢â¬Å"Family sources of educational gender inequality in rural China: A critical assessmentÃ¢â¬ , in China gender differences in education are concentrated in rural areas because children are competing with their siblings for too little resources for education. (p. 475) Educating girls is also considered a waste because their future incomes do not come back to their familie s. B) In Nepal there is a struggle to provide better educations for children. Quality of Nepalese schools depends on the area and the amount of funding the school receives from the government. According to the article Ã¢â¬Å"Universal primary education in Nepal: FulÃ ¯Ã ¬Ã lling the right to educationÃ¢â¬ by Lohani, Balak Singh, and Lohan(2010), eighty six percent of students attend community schools. Two of the three types of community schools receive little or no aid at all. (p. 356) This leaves financially strained areas around those schools to fund the materials needed for each student. In class we learned that many of the schools are poor in quality and many students of different grades must be taught together. (E. Miller, personal communication, March 13, 2014) This lowers the quality of education that students receive. Students are also encouraged by parents to work instead of attending school. Only seven out of ten Nepalese children make it from first grade to fifth grade and over fifty percent drop out before lower secondary school. Of those who drop out most are girls. Some of the high dropout rate for females is caused by the girls going through puberty. In some areas of Nepal, menstruating females are temporarily exiled and are unable to go anywhere until the end of their cycle. (E. Miller, personal communication, March 13, 2014) This causes female students to fall behind in their studies every month which makes it hard to continue on in school. There are also few female teachers and there are no separate bathrooms for females which can be influence them to dropout. Financial status plays a role in retention too and causes some students to be unable to attend school due to the costs. Many of those who attend are also undernourished and are distracted by hunger during the day, making it hard to retain information. They are often punished by teachers because of their lack of concentration. (E. Miller, personal communication, March 13, 2014) Children in Antiquity Referring to lecture and at least one of the articles in the reader on childhood during antiquity: analyze how families and children were conceptualized during that time and discuss how we know this today. describe what factors determined how much or how little children were valued. *Be sure to differentiate between male and female children as well as ancient Rome or Greek city-states A) According to the Ã¢â¬Å"Children in AntiquityÃ¢â¬ article by Valerie French(1991), families in antiquity consisted of the normal mother, father, and children plus midwives, tutors, slaves, nurses and many other adults. (p. 13) This shows that child rearing was important in antiquity and was viewed as being a job that extended outside of immediate family. Wealthier families also seemed to control the amount of children they had through family planning in order to restrict the number of heirs to their fortunes. Poorer families also had controlled sizes through limited resources and poor health. Families tended to have two or three children. Occasionally the restrictions on the number of children became a problem, when there were fears that two or three children were not enough to maintain the population. The Romans were much more concerned about not being able to have enough heirs to keep up the aristocracy and not having enough soldiers for their legions. For Romans and Greeks, mothers were often the more lenient between the parents while the fathers were harsher. Romans also had family welfare plans for those in poverty to promote health and family growth. Information about the family and childhood in antiquity are not hard to find. According to our lecture, when historians analyze the information they find they must try to do so in the mindset of the author by making assumptions about their experiences and beliefs about children. (E. Miller, personal communication, February 4, 2014) This allows them to get the most out of the poems, plays, essays and biographies they find. B) For Rome children didnÃ¢â¬â¢t seem to have a lot of value. According to VeyneÃ¢â¬â¢s(2003) From MotherÃ¢â¬â¢s Womb to Last Will and Testament, the head of the family decided whether or not any children born into their household would be raised, abandoned or killed at birth. Abandoned children could be taken by anyone who wanted them and all of these practices were common. (p. 12) This seemed to be a common practice for Greece as well. It seems that in both Greece and Rome, male children had more importance than female. Males were thought to be the ones who would take over the family and in RomeÃ¢â¬â¢s case power the legions. According to Ã¢â¬Å"Children in AntiquityÃ¢â¬ , in Greece female children barely had an adolescent stage because they were married off so soon after hitting puberty. (French, 1991, p. 17) Their education was also very different from that of male children. Usually, after marriage it was up to the husband to complete his wifeÃ¢â¬â¢s education. Educat ion was thought to be important by Greeks and Romans in order to ensure a good future. According to one of our lectures, Greeks tended to treat females like slaves and they were not permitted to engage in anything related to politics. (E. Miller, personal communication, February 4, 2014) From the articles cited above and class lectures, it seems that Romans and Greeks didnÃ¢â¬â¢t value their children as much when they were babies, potentially because of the high rate of neonatal death, but seemed to derive a lot of pleasure from their childhoods. It seems that children only really became of use when they were able to start their own families and take on higher roles in society. Even their education seems to be toward making them useful for the community instead of for the advancement of their minds. Value of children for Greeks and Romans seems to have been really situational. If a child was born and was displeasing to the head of household they were simply cast away or even sold into slavery. Female children seemed to be thought of as expendable child bearers that were not very important in the community and were left to simply care for their families. Renaissance and Puritanism Referring to class lecture and the Sommerville and Greven (i.e., Cotton Mather) articles: describe the cultural context of the Renaissance and how it set the stage for the Puritan view of childhood and emphasis on educational reform. describe Puritan practices and goals associated with each of the following: education, piety, and parenting. Discuss why the Puritans pushed for a more practical school curriculum and how Puritan values have influenced contemporary American culture. A) During the renaissance it seemed like parents became gentler towards their children and began to value them as more than just a way to continue their families. During this time parents began to shy away from so much physical punishment, as had been done in earlier times, because they believed that God was watching them. According to SommervilleÃ¢â¬â¢s(1990) article, Childhood Becomes Crucial: The Religious Reformations, reformers became more interested in children because of their concern for the future of the church and the childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s spiritual welfare. (p. 101) It seems like parents became aware that how they treated and taught their children would decide the future of their society. Children were taught more about what was right and wrong which began to set the stage for the wholesome childrearing tactics used by Puritans. Reformers made parents believe that their children could save the world. These reformations gave way to educational that were more rewarding for chi ldren instead of the before used tactics of fear and discipline. The structure of education changed into the system that would be used by the Puritans and one that modern education is based off of. B) Piety: According to GrevenÃ¢â¬â¢s(1973) article, Cotton Mather: One the Education of his Children, children had to learn at early ages how to practice religion in order to be pious. (p. 43) Children were also encouraged to pray alone to develop their own tactics for prayer. Though adults believed that children had favor with God, they were taught at young ages of His watchful eye and how to stay in GodÃ¢â¬â¢s favor. According to our lecture, puritans believed that everyone was entitled to a basic education regardless of class or economic status. (E. Miller, personal communication, February 27, 2014) Everyone was taught arithmetic, writing, and reading. Puritans also favored government assistance for schools. These two characteristics are still the base of the modern education system. Class does not determine whether we are educated or not, it only determines the quality of education. Puritan parenting methods have resemblance to methods used in modern times. Today children are encouraged to rely largely on their parents for everything and usually do so without question, until a certain age at least. According to Greven(1973), children should fully rely on their parents to guide them and know that they have their best interests at heart. (p. 44) Puritans wanted to encourage children to trust their parents instead of fearing them as they may have in the past. I also think they wanted to dissuade children from rebelling against their parents as well. According to SommervilleÃ¢â¬â¢s(1990) Childhood become crucial: the religious reformations, education became important because puritans believed that without a proper education their children would not be able to properly understand and teach scriptures from the bible. Even girls would be included in this primary education, which was uncommon in earlier times. (p. 105) Puritans only believed in primary education for religious purposes which are similar to AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s views that education is for making mo ney. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s interesting that in neither time periods is education considered important as a way to increase knowledge. References French, V. (1991). Children in antiquity. In J. M. Hawes N. R. Hays (Eds.), Children in Historical and Comparative Perspective (pp. 13-29). New York: Greenwood Press. Greven, P. J. (1973). Cotton Mather: Some special points relating to the education of my children. In P. J. Greven, Child-rearing concepts, 1628-1861 (pp. 42-45). Itasca, IL: Peacock Publishers. Hannum, E., Kong, P., Zhang, Y. (2009). Family sources of educational gender inequality in rural China: A critical assessment. International Journal of Educational Development, 29(5), 474-486. Lee, K. S. (2010). Parental educational investments and aspirations in Japan. Journal of Family Issues, 31(12), 1579-1603. Lohani, S., Singh, R., Lohani, J. (2010). Universal primary education in Nepal: Fulfilling the right to education. Prospects (Paris, France), 40(3), 355-374. Sommerville, J. (1990). Childhood becomes crucial: The religious reformation. In J. Sommerville, The rise and fall of childhood (pp. 100-110). New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts. Smith, S. L., Neupane, S. (2011). Factors in health initiative success: Learning from NepalÃ¢â¬â¢s newborn survival initiative. Social Science Magazine, 72(4), 568-575. Veyne, P. (2003). The Roman Empire: From motherÃ¢â¬â¢s womb to last will and testament. In Aries, P., Duby, G. A History of Private Life: From Pagan Rome to Byzantium. (pp. 9-32). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Friday, October 25, 2019
'The broken globe'; by Henry Kreisel tells the story of a father and a son torn apart by their differing views of the world. Another story which I feel parallels this story in certain aspects is the 1977 classic 'Star Wars'; by George Lucas. In Star Wars, Luke Skywalker, a young farmboy on a backwater world, receives a lightsabre from Obi Wan Kenobi, this inspires an urge to leave his world and learn to be a Jedi. One of the conflicts Luke must face is his Uncle Owen who wishes him to stay on his world and be a farmer. When Luke finally does leave he becomes very successful. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Luke Skywalker lived on the small backwater world of Tatoonie with his Aunt Beru and his Uncle Owen. Lukes desire to leave is instigated by Obi Wan Kenobi a old friend of his father he never knew. Luke is given a lightsabre which once belonged to his father. When Luke receives this and learns of his Jedi potential he desires to leave and learn to be a Jedi. This is not unlike Nick Solchuk who also wants to leave his small town of Three Bear Hills, Alberta. He is raised by his father in an old fashion way, much like Luke. Nicks desire to leave is first aroused by a teacher, Joan McKenzie. She taught him of how the earth is round not flat like his father believes. This starts the conflict between father and son. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã I believe another thing that both stories have in common is Luke's Uncle and Mr. Solchuk's beliefs that they should stay at their homes and live simple lives like they did. Luke's Uncle believe Luke should stay on Tatoonie and be a farmer like himself, he also worries that if Luke begins to learn to be a Jedi that he will turn to the darkside and become evil like his father, Darth Vader. Mr. Solchuk believed Nick should also stay and farm the land like he has all his life. Mr. Solchuk also believed that Nicks beliefs of the world being round were evil and it was a sin to believe in this. Nick left his town against his fathers will and fulfilled his dream. Luke also left his world, but, Luke's Aunt and Uncle were killed by Imperial troops, this also gave Luke a reason to leave and fight the Imperials to avenge his families death
Thursday, October 24, 2019
Approaches of OMÃ :Within the past fifteen years or so there has been much studies about the theoretical status of discourse markers (DMS) focusing on what they are ,what they mean and what functions they manifest. Fraser (1999) maintains that teseachers have agreed that DMS are lexical expressions that relate discourse segments , but they have disagreed on how they are defined and what functions they carry. Similar to this view, shourup (1999) argues that there is disagreement on functions on fundamental issues in the study of DMS. researchers are unable to agree on the grammatical category of DMS or how to delimit their class or even what types of meaning these markers express. In order to understand more about DMS in language it is necessary to refer to tow approaches of DMSÃ :The reliance theory and coherence teased approach1/coherence based approach:Within coherence theory it is assumed DMS play a major role in dis course interpretation by using Ã¢â¬Å"coherence Ã¢â¬ relations between discourse units. As shourup (1999,p.240) argues that the interpretation of a text, according to the coherence group. Depends on the identification of coherence relations between the units of that text . this group includes researchers who adopt a coherence-based theory. The main figures of this group are Schifrin (1987). Fraser (1988-1990) and redeker (1990-1991).Schifrin (1987) studies the semantic and grammatical status of DMS and their functions . since she belongs to the coherence group, Schifrin states that DMS contribute to the coherence of the text by establishing coherence relationships between units of talk Schifrin (1987,b.9). He adds that DMS indicate that the interpretation of one clause is determined by the information derived from the prior clause .Schifrin proposes that DMS have a coherence role in the sense that they relate informational units in the present discourse with informational units in the prior discourse , this is what Schifrin calls local coherence in her framework; which means that it is local in the sense that DMS link two adjacent units in the text. She states that DMS have both cohesive and structural roles ; structural because they link two (or more) syntactic units, and also cohesive because the interpretation of the utterance depends on the combination of both conjuncts. It can be summarized that Schifrin concentrates on the linguistic and structural role that DMS play to achieve discourse coherence by linking discourse units The second figure of coherence-based theory is Fraser(1999). Similarly to Schifrin, Fraser maintains that DMS contribute to the coherence of a text by indicating coherence relationships between units of talk however, Fraser(1999,938) indicates that DMS do not have to signal any relationship between segment 2 and segment 1 (adjacent segments of talk ).A discourse marker can relate the segment it introduces with any other previous segment in discourse .And this is known as Ã¢â¬Ëglobal coherence ,it is contrasted to Schifrin's local coherence . Fraser's (1997-1999) account focuses on pragmatic functions of DMS ;he calls them Ã¢â¬Å"pragmatic markersÃ¢â¬ . Fraser define DMS in his proposal as they are linguistic element that encode clues which signal the speaker potential communicative intention .2/ Relevance-based account:Sperber and Wilson (1986,1995) have developed the relevance theory. It is a pragmatic model that explain how speakers interpret utterances. It based on cognitive ability of the hearer to interpret the utterance rather the linguistic one. The relevance theory suggests that the mind's central processor is highly effective in holding the information because it is specifically oriented towards the search for relevance (as cited in the use of discourse markers in E.F.L learners writing by ana cristina laluerta Martinez university of Oviedo). The principle of relevance determines that all utterances are ruled by the level of optimal relevance .that is to say ,when a speaker calls a hearer's attention to the utterance . He is claiming that his utterance is relevant enough to deserve the hearer's attention. To discuss deeply the relation between relevance theory and discourse markers , Blakemore should be present Blakemore (1987) argument is that DMS play a crucial role in the interpretation of utterance by providing the hearer/reader with some guidance in the inferential phase to reach the optimal relevance. According to Blakemore (1987), connectives contribute to the interpretation process. Usually a speaker/writer has a specific interpretation of his utterance and to guide the hearer/reader to reach the right interpretation DMS are so important .They provide the specification of certain properties of the context and the contextual effects .The level of optimal relevance means that the larger contextual effect the smaller cognitive effort . generally the hearer stores a number of assumption in his memory ,and these assumptions can interact with the new information conveyed by the speaker , which come up with three results ; a new assumption or the contradiction , and even elimination , of an assumption Blakemore (1992;p.135). This the speakers/writer can help the hearer by reducing the cognitive effort. As Blakemore (1992;p.176) Ã¢â¬Å"a speaker may use the linguistic from of his utterance to guide the interpretation processÃ¢â¬ . Similar features of discourse markers:Despite the large disagreement about the definition and the classification of discourse markers ,There are some basic characteristic and features shared by discourse markers have been identified in DMS studies. Schourup (1999) argues, Ã¢â¬Å"to identify a small sent of characteristic most commonly attributes to discourse markers and to items referred to by other closely associated termsÃ¢â¬ . He realizes the most common features in these expressions from some studies in the discourse markers. These features are Ã¢â¬Å"multi-categoriality, connectivity, mon-truth conditionality, weak clause association, initiality, and optionalityÃ¢â¬ a-multi- categoriality : It is viewed that discourse markers constitute a functional category that is heterogeneous with respect to the syntactic class (as cited in (similar features). Because items that are usually included in DMS are not structurally unified. They are derived from a variety of grammatical sources. Schourup (1999,p.134) distinguishes in wich DM function has been a attributed whether words like: adverbs (eg, now actually, anyway), coordinating and subordinating conjunctions (e.g, and, but, because). Interjections (e.g, oh, gosh, boy) verbs (e.g, say, look, see) or it can includes clauses (e.g, you see, I mean, you know). The fact that DMS are drown from different word classes makes them difficult to define them structurally. And that means they have identical counterparts that are not used as markers. Kohlani (2010,p39) points out that despite the great dispute regarding Ã¢â¬Å"the coexistence of two structurally identical items that function differently in discourseÃ¢â¬ , they do not overlap in discourse :When an expression functions as a discourse markers ,it does not express the propositional meaning of, its identical counterparts. As cites in janina buintkiene (2015)b- connectivity :connectivity is a common point shared by many studies concerning the DMS. They agree that DMS connect utterances or other discourse unites. However, there is a great disagreement about the nature of the connection discourse markers express and the nature and extent of the element connected ,as Schourup ( 1999,p20)point out. Thus connectivity is conceived differently due to the way discourse is viewed. In coherence-based studies, like Schifrin (1987) and Fraser (1999) defined DMS as connectives which relate two textual units by marking the relationships between them; they contribute to inter-utterance coherence. For coherence-based studies DMS have an important role in connecting one segment of text to another. In relevance-based studies, DMS do not connect one segment of text to another but they provide the hearer/reader with the right interpretation of the segment they introduce. Blakemore (1987) noted that DMS can play the role of connecting the host utterance not only the linguistic co-text but also to the context in a wider sense. For within relevance theory, discourse markers are viewed as expressing Ã¢â¬Å"inferential connectionsÃ¢â¬ that constrain the Ã¢â¬Å"cognitive processesÃ¢â¬ underlying the interpretation of the segment they introduce (Blakemore(2002,p.5).similar to this view, shourup (1999,p.230-232)states that DMS do not connect one segment of text to another. Rather they connect the Ã¢â¬Å"propositional contentÃ¢â¬ expressed by their host sentence Ã¢â¬Å"to assumptions that are expressed by contextÃ¢â¬ . He concludes that if connectivity is criterial for DM status, it can be used to distinguish DMS from various other initial element such as illocutionary adverbials (e.g, confidentially), attitudinal adverbials (e.g, sadly) and from primary interjections (e.g, oops). c/ nontruth-conditionality: nontruth-conditionality is also a feature that most researchers attribute to discourse markers. Saying that DMS are nontruth-conditional means that they bring no meaning or condition to the sentence. As Schourup (1999,p.232) claims that DMS are generally thought to contribute nothing to the truth-conditions of the proposition expressed by an utterance. Fraser (1996) also claimed that DMS do not influence the truth-conditions of sentences; he approved the idea that truth-conditions pertain to mental representations not to sentences. Accordingly ,for many researchers discourse markers are nontruth-conditional means that DMS are part of the pragmatic component of the sentence. Ostman (1995,p.98) argues that their Ã¢â¬Å"primary task in language is not related to the propositional aspect of sentences, but to the pragmatic functioning of languageÃ¢â¬ . Moreover, Blakemore (2002) points out that pragmatic is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"meaning minus truth conditionsÃ¢â¬ . She argues that pragmatic information which is not part of the truth conditional content Ã¢â¬Å"cannot be obtained through decoding linguistic formsÃ¢â¬ . As a conclusion, DMS are non-propositional expressions means that they are not part of propositional meaning of the sentence moreover; this does not mean they do not effect this meaning. DMS are not important in the propositional structure, but they do effect the propositional meaning. As Andersen (2001) argues that the meaning of the sentence is Ã¢â¬Å"not handled solely by the words contained in the utteranceÃ¢â¬ rather is conveyed by Ã¢â¬ complex semantic and pragmatic processesÃ¢â¬ , as cited by kohlan (2010).d/ weak clause association:another characteristic of discourse markers that has been identified by Schourup (1999,p.232-234) is weak clause association. It is similar to the nontruth-conditionality feature is the sense of the detachment of DMS from their host sentence. As cited in janina buitkiene (2015), Brinton argues (1996,p.34), DMS usually occur Ã¢â¬Å"cither outside the syntactic structure or loosely attached to itÃ¢â¬ . DMS are regarded as being outside the propositional content and the syntactic structure of the sentence. Schourup (1999) points out that some of DMS have their syntactic structure such as on the other hand and you know (232). It is also because of their loose grammatical attachment to the structure of their host sentence, that discourse markers are after separate from the main clause by comma or independent two unit Ã¢â¬Å"regard Len whether they occur within the clause or at its initialÃ¢â¬ (ibid, 233). e/ initiality:IS one of the most noticeable feature of discourse markers. For some researchers. DMS occurs initially in the sentence. As Hansen (1997,p.157) points out that Ã¢â¬Å"markers must necessarily precede their host unitÃ¢â¬ . Similarly, Fraser (1990,p389) state Ã¢â¬Å"typically occur only in utterance-initial positionÃ¢â¬ . The significance of the initial position as a text organizer is what makes it the most appropriate place in which discourse markers can fulfill their role in discourse. As cited in.The place of DMS is related to their function in discourse. Schourup (1999) states. Ã¢â¬Å"because they are used to restrict the contextual interpretation of an utteranceÃ¢â¬ ; he adds Ã¢â¬Å"it makes sense to restrict context early before interpretation can run astrayÃ¢â¬ (233). Moreover, kohlani (2010.48) argues that initial position give for DMS wide scope over the whole sentence or paragraph to influence hearer or reader interpretation of everything that follows. f/ Optionality:Being optional rather than obligatory is another feature of discourse markers. Accordingly, DMS can be present or absent in the discourse. As Schifrin (1987) argues. Ã¢â¬Å"are never obligatoryÃ¢â¬ . Moreover, Schourup (1999,p.231) states that DMS are optional in two distinct senses: Ã¢â¬Å"syntactically optional in the sense that removal of a DMS does not alter grammaticality of the sentences and in the further sense that they do not enlarge the possibilities for semantic relationship between the element they associateÃ¢â¬ . However, he adds. Ã¢â¬Å"it is never claimed that the optionality of DMS renders them useless as redundantÃ¢â¬ . This means even if DMS are regarded as syntactically and semantically optional, pragmatically are not. Supporting to this view, Brinton (1996) argues, Ã¢â¬ they are not pragmatically optional or superfluousÃ¢â¬ . Instead , they guide the hearer/reader to a particular interpretation. As Brinton (1996,p.34) argues Ã¢â¬Å"they reinforce or clue the interpretation intended by the speakerÃ¢â¬ .
Wednesday, October 23, 2019
The Ritz Carlton runs in a way that makes every single detail about the consumer and the consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s needs, wants, and expectations. Every decision that they make they make with the consumer in mind. They essentially are selling unsurpassed service to their patrons. The Ritz Carlton is very well-known for providing consistent service to its patrons in each of its locations throughout the world. They provide guests with high quality customer service, utilizing their Gold Standards for customer service, which include its credo, motto, employee promise, three steps of service, and the twelve service values. The three steps of service are fairly basic, however many companies overlook them, losing that opportunity to create a long lasting relationship with the guest. The first is to deliver a warm and sincere greeting and to use the guest's name; the second is to anticipate and fulfill the needs of each guest; and the third is to give a warm good-bye, again using the guest's name. The Ritz Carlton believes that guest recognition is a top priority. If employees recognize the guest, then they can give personalized service, have fast access to knowledge, and interactions that are largely hassle free. These Gold Standards continue to lead the company to outperform its competition and increase its customer loyalty. They also have programs designed to meet specific customer needs that include their Service Quality Indicators (SQIs). The Ritz Carlton continually improves its processes and programs in order to give its guests the exceptional service that they have come to be well known for giving in the hotel industry. In essence, they are selling service to consumers. The Ritz Carlton has applied for and won the Baldridge Award in 1992 and 1999, which confirmed that quality is not a short term approach to doing business. The Ritz Carlton works hard to achieve the highest customer and employee satisfaction in the industry. They believe it is critical to continually improve day after day. As a consumer, I would be willing to pay for a stay at the Ritz Carlton. I believe that the methods that they use are fantastic. They treat everyone, including their employees, with respect. That is something that many companies fail to even consider when they are building their business. There are many people who choose products and services from companies by looking at factors such as how they treat their employees, where their products are made, etc. rather than looking only at the price tag and looking for a place or item that is Ã¢â¬Å"cheapÃ¢â¬ . As a consumer, I would rather patronize a place that was more expensive and treated its employees like gold, than patronize a place that was cheap and treated its employees poorly. I believe that the Ritz Carlton offers an excellent service to their guests and IÃ¢â¬â¢m fairly certain that the majority of consumers would be willing to pay for it. However, the price of a hotel room at the Ritz Carlton is on the pricier side so IÃ¢â¬â¢m sure that there are plenty of people that would love to take advantage of staying there but would be unable to do so since they could not afford it. Do you think itÃ¢â¬â¢s possible for Ritz Carlton to create Ã¢â¬Å"ladies and gentlemenÃ¢â¬ in just 7 days? It most likely is possible for Ritz Carlton to do so because their employee selection process is highly refined and they are able to higher excellent candidates who understand this concept of Ã¢â¬Å"ladies and gentlemenÃ¢â¬ . The Ritz Carlton looks for individuals who understand their culture and will engage with other employees, managers and guests. They look for individuals who exhibit certain personality traits and hiring managers seek those individuals when they recruit and interview candidates. In order to ensure that interviewees are sincere and positive people, the hiring managers use two-part questions that will eliminate interviewees who are insincere. According to the article, Inside the Ritz CarltonÃ¢â¬â¢s Revolutionary Service, a prospective employee may be asked, Ã¢â¬Å"Are you a habitual smiler? Ã¢â¬ . If the candidate responds with a Ã¢â¬Å"yesÃ¢â¬ , then the hiring manager will proceed to ask, Ã¢â¬Å"Why do you smile? Ã¢â¬ . It is clear to see that the Ritz Carlton selects its employees very carefully in order to find employees that will understand the culture and be able to learn quickly how to be a lady or a gentleman. By looking for people that have the necessary talent to do the job, they feel they can teach the other skills necessary to get them to lady or gentleman status. The Ritz Carlton has a very slow orientation process that they feel can best prepare the new employee with the mission of the company. They feel that when an individual starts a new job, it is a significant emotional experience. During this time, that individual will be attentive and receptive to emotional changes. The Ritz Carlton uses this time to focus on their values and to instill those values into that employee. The employee than goes though their week of orientation and afterwards, they are expected to have adapted the company culture. It seems to me that between their vigorous selection process and the week of orientation, many of these individuals would be able to adapt to their culture as Ã¢â¬Å"a lady or gentlemenÃ¢â¬ . Also, it is important to point out that the company is well known for treating their employees very well. I would believe that their employees know this and would want to treat the company well in return. The employees must have a high level of employee morale. They have every reason to want to continue on as a Ã¢â¬Å"lady or a gentlemenÃ¢â¬ as their time continues on with the company. They will also have the chance for promotions in the future. The Ritz Carlton sets employees up for success starting by selecting the right employees for the right position within the company. They are then able to mold these individuals into the employees that they want them to be. They also treat them very well and give them room for growth. I believe that doing this ensures that these individuals will become Ã¢â¬Å"ladies and gentlemenÃ¢â¬ within the 7 days.